New ant species discovered in the Amazon likely to be descendant of the first ant

September 16th, 2008 - 1:46 pm ICT by ANI  

Washington, September 16 (ANI): A biologist has discovered a new species of blind, subterranean, predatory ant in the Amazon rainforest, which is most likely a descendant of the very first ants to evolve.

The biologist in question is University of Texas at Austin evolutionary biologist Christian Rabeling.

The new ant is named Martialis heureka, which translates roughly to ant from Mars, because the ant has a combination of characteristics never before recorded.

It is adapted for dwelling in the soil, is two to three millimeters long, pale, and has no eyes and large mandibles, which Rabeling and colleagues suspect it uses to capture prey.

The ant also belongs to its own new subfamily, one of 21 subfamilies in ants. This is the first time that a new subfamily of ants with living species has been discovered since 1923.

According to Rabeling, his discovery will help biologists better understand the biodiversity and evolution of ants, which are abundant and ecologically important insects.

This discovery hints at a wealth of species, possibly of great evolutionary importance, still hidden in the soils of the remaining rainforests, said Rabeling and his co-authors.

Rabeling collected the only known specimen of the new ant species in 2003 from leaf-litter at the Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria in Manaus, Brazil.

He and his colleagues found that the ant was a new species, genus and subfamily after morphological and genetic analysis.

Analysis of DNA from the ants legs confirmed its phylogenetic position at the very base of the ant evolutionary tree.

This discovery lends support to the idea that blind subterranean predator ants arose at the dawn of ant evolution, said Rabeling.

Though Rabeling does not suggest that the ancestor to all ants was blind and subterranean, these adaptations arose early and have persisted over the years.

Based on our data and the fossil record, we assume that the ancestor of this ant was somewhat wasp-like, perhaps similar to the Cretaceous amber fossil Sphecomyrma, which is widely known as the evolutionary missing link between wasps and ants, he said.

Rabeling speculates that the new ant species evolved adaptations over time to its subterranean habitat (for example, loss of eyes and pale body color), while retaining some of its ancestors physical characteristics.

The new ant species is hidden in environmentally stable tropical soils with potentially less competition from other ants and in a relatively stable microclimate, he said. It could represent a relict species that retained some ancestral morphological characteristics, he added. (ANI)

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