Great white shark bite hardest of them all today

August 6th, 2008 - 12:08 pm ICT by IANS  

Sydney, Aug 6 (IANS) The great white shark possesses the most lethal and formidable bite of any existing species, according to a new study. Researchers calculated that the bite force of its extinct cousin, the gigantic fossil species Carcharodon megalodon (Big Tooth) is the highest of all time, making it the most formidable carnivore yet on earth.

The scientists estimated the bite force of the gigantic Big Tooth between 10.8 to 18.2 tonnes. That extinst shark may have grown to 16 metres in length and weighed up to 100 tonnes - at least 30 times as heavy as the largest living great whites.

Fossil evidence suggested that Big Tooth was an active predator of large whales and immobilised its huge prey by biting off their tail and flippers before feeding at will.

A comparison of Tyrannosaurus rex with Big Tooth suggests that the great lizard was no match for the giant shark. Estimates of maximum bite force for T. Rex are around 3.1 tonnes, greater than for a living white shark, but puny compared to Big Tooth.

Shark researchers from Universities of New South Wales, Newcastle and California revealed unprecedented information about the feeding habits of the two carnivores by analysing anatomical and biomechanical data from their skull and muscle tissues.

They generated 3-D models of the skull of the existing 2.4-metre male great white shark on the basis of multiple x-ray images generated by a computerized tomography (CT) scanner.

Using novel imaging and analysis software and a technique known as ‘finite element analysis’, the team reconstructed the great white’s skull, jaws and muscles, remodelling them as hundreds of thousands of tiny discrete, but connected parts.

They then digitally “crash tested” this computer model to simulate different scenarios and reveal the powerful bite of the fearsome predator, as well as the complex distributions of stresses and strains that these forces impose on the shark’s jaws.

It was found that the largest great whites have a bite force of up to 1.8 tonnes. By comparison, a large African lion can produce around 560 kg of bite force and a human approximately 80 kg - making the great white’s bite 20 times harder than that of a human.

UNSW’s Steve Wroe, the study’s co-author, said the great white is without a doubt one of the hardest biting creatures alive, possibly the hardest.

“Nature has endowed this carnivore with more than enough bite force to kill and eat large and potentially dangerous prey,” he said. “Pound for pound the great white’s bite is not particularly impressive, but the sheer size of the animal means that in absolute terms it tops the scales.

“It must also be remembered that its extremely sharp serrated teeth require relatively little force to drive them through thick skin, fat and muscle.”

The scientists also found that although the shark’s jaws comprise elastic cartilage (as opposed to the bony jaws of most other fish), this did not greatly reduce the power of its bite.

These findings will appear in the Journal of Zoology.

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