Chronology of key events in Pakistan’s history:

November 14th, 2007 - 8:22 am ICT by admin  
1948 - Muhammed Ali Jinnah, the first governor general of Pakistan, dies.

1948 - First war with India over disputed territory of Kashmir.

1951 - Jinnah’s successor Liaquat Ali Khan is assassinated.

1956 - Constitution proclaims Pakistan an Islamic republic.

1958 - Martial law declared for the first time in Pakistan. General Ayub Khan takes over.

1960 - General Ayyub Khan becomes president.

1965 - Second war with India over Kashmir.

1969 - General Ayub Khan resigns and General Yahya Khan takes over.

1970 - Victory in general elections in East Pakistan for breakaway Awami League, leading to rising tension with West Pakistan.

1971 - East Pakistan attempts to secede, leading to civil war. India intervenes in support of East Pakistan which eventually breaks away to become Bangladesh.

July 1972 - Shimla peace agreement with India sets new frontline in Kashmir.

1973 - Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto becomes prime minister.

1977 - Riots erupt over allegations of vote rigging by Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto’s Pakistan People’s Party (PPP). General Zia ul-Haq stages military coup and imposes martial law.

1978 - General Zia becomes president.

1979 - Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto hanged.

1980 - US pledges military assistance to Pakistan following Soviet intervention in Afghanistan.

1985 - Martial law and political parties ban lifted.

1986 - Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto’s daughter Benazir returns from exile to lead PPP in campaign for fresh elections.

1988 August - General Zia, the US ambassador and top Pakistan army officials die in mysterious air crash, ending 11 years of military rule.

Ghulam Ishaq Khan takes over as acting president, and is later elected to the post.

1988 November - Benazir Bhutto’s PPP wins general election.

1990 - Benazir Bhutto dismissed as prime minister on charges of incompetence and corruption.

1991 - Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif begins economic liberalisation programme. Islamic Shariah law formally incorporated into legal code.

1992 - Government launches campaign to stamp out violence by Urdu-speaking supporters of the Mohajir Quami Movement.

1993 - President Khan and Prime Minister Sharif both resign under pressure from military. General election brings Benazir Bhutto back to power.

1996 - President Leghari dismisses Bhutto government amid corruption allegations.

1997 - Nawaz Sharif returns as prime minister after his Pakistan Muslim League party wins elections.

1998 - Pakistan conducts its own nuclear tests after India explodes several devices.

1999 April - Benazir Bhutto and her husband convicted of corruption and given jail sentences. Benazir stays out of the country.

1999 May - Kargil conflict: Pakistan-backed forces clash with the Indian military in the icy heights around Kargil in Indian-held Kashmir. More than 1,000 people are killed on both sides.

1999 October - Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif overthrown in military coup led by General Pervez Musharraf. Coup is widely condemned, Pakistan is suspended from Commonwealth.

2000 April - Nawaz Sharif sentenced to life imprisonment on hijacking and terrorism charges.

2000 December - Nawaz Sharif goes into exile in Saudi Arabia after being pardoned by military authorities.

June 20, 2001 - Gen Pervez Musharraf names himself president while remaining head of the army. He replaced the figurehead president, Rafiq Tarar, who vacated his position earlier in the day after the parliament that elected him was dissolved.

July 2001: Musharraf meets Indian Prime Minister Atal Behari Vajpayee in the first summit between the two neighbours in more than two years. The meeting ends without a breakthrough or even a joint statement because of differences over Kashmir.

September 2001 - Musharraf swings in behind the US in its fight against terrorism and supports attacks on Afghanistan. US lifts some sanctions imposed after Pakistan’s nuclear tests in 1998, but retains others put in place after Musharraf’s coup.

October 2001 - India fires on Pakistani military posts in the heaviest firing along the dividing line of control in Kashmir for almost a year.

December 2001 - India imposes sanctions against Pakistan, to force it to take action against two Kashmir militant groups blamed for a suicide attack on parliament in New Dehli. Pakistan retaliates with similar sanctions.

December 2001 - India, Pakistan mass troops along common border amid mounting fears of a looming war.

January 2002 - President Musharraf bans two militant groups - Lashkar-e-Toiba and Jaish-e-Mohammad - and takes steps to curb religious extremism. He also announces that elections will be held in October 2002 to end three years of military rule.

April 2002 - Musharraf wins another five years in office in a referendum criticised as unconstitutional and fraught with irregularities.

May 2002 - Fourteen people, including 11 French technicians, are killed in a suicide attack on a bus in Karachi. The following month 12 people are killed in a suicide attack outside the US consulate in the city.

May 2002 - Pakistan test fires three medium-range surface-to-surface Ghauri missiles, which are capable of carrying nuclear warheads. Musharraf tells nation that Pakistan doesn’t want war but is ready to respond with full force if attacked.

June 2002 - Britain and US maintain diplomatic offensive to avert war, urge their citizens to leave India and Pakistan.

August 2002 - President Musharraf grants himself sweeping new powers, including the right to dismiss an elected parliament. Opposition forces accuse Musharraf of perpetuating dictatorship.

October 2002 - First general election since the 1999 military coup results in a hung parliament. Parties haggle over the make-up of a coalition. Religious parties fare better than expected.

November 2002 - Mir Zafarullah Jamali selected as prime minister by the National Assembly. He is the first civilian premier since the 1999 military coup and a member of a party close to General Musharraf.

February 2003 - Senate elections: Ruling party wins most seats in voting to the upper house. Elections said to be final stage of what President Musharraf calls transition to democracy.

June 2003 - North-West Frontier Province votes to introduce Sharia law.

November 2003 - Pakistan declares a Kashmir ceasefire, which is swiftly matched by India.

December 2003 - Pakistan and India agree to resume direct air links and to allow overflights of each other’s planes from beginning of 2004 after two-year ban. President Musharraf survives an attempt on his life; bombs explode under a bridge seconds after his car passes over it.

February 2004 - Leading nuclear scientist Dr Abdul Qadeer Khan admits to having leaked nuclear weapons secrets. Technology is said to have been transferred to Libya, North Korea and Iran.

April 2004 - Parliament approves creation of military-led National Security Council. Move institutionalises role of armed forces in civilian affairs.

May 2004 - Pakistan readmitted to Commonwealth.Factional violence in Karachi: Senior Sunni cleric shot dead; bomb attack on Shia mosque kills 16, injures 40.

June 2004 - Military offensive near Afghan border against suspected al-Qaeda militants and their supporters after attacks on checkpoints. Earlier offensive, in March, left more than 120 dead.

August 2004 - Shaukat Aziz is sworn in as prime minister. In July he escaped unhurt from an apparent assassination attempt.

December 2004 - President Musharraf says he will stay on as head of the army having previously promised to relinquish the role.

January 2005 - Tribal militants in Balochistan attack facilities at Pakistan’s largest natural gas field, forcing closure of main plant.

ctober 2005: Quake killed thousands, leaves millions without shelter in Pakistan Kashmir

January 2006 - Up to 18 people are killed in a US missile strike, apparently targeting senior al-Qaeda figures, on a border village in the north.

February 2006 - More than 30 people are killed in a suspected suicide bomb attack and ensuing violence at a Shia Muslim procession in the north-west.

April 2006 - A suspected double suicide bombing kills at least 57 people at a Sunni Muslim ceremony in Karachi.

August 2006 - Security forces kill prominent Balochistan tribal leader, Nawab Akbar Bugti. Protests over his death turn violent.

October 2006 - Raid on an Islamic seminary in the tribal area of Bajaur bordering Afghanistan kills up to 80 people, sparking anti-government protests. The army says the madrassa was a training camp for militants.

December 2006 - Pakistan says it has successfully test-fired a short-range missile capable of carrying a nuclear warhead.

January 2007 - Islamabad rejects an assertion by the head of US National Intelligence that al-Qaeda leaders are hiding out in Pakistan.

January-June 2007 - Tension mounts between the government and the radical Red Mosque in Islamabad.

February 2007 - Bombings in different parts of the country, including at Islamabad’s Marriott Hotel and the international airport, kill a number of people. 68 passengers, most of them Pakistanis, are killed by bomb blasts and a blaze on a train travelling between the Indian capital New Delhi and the Pakistani city of Lahore.

Pakistan and India sign an agreement aimed at reducing the risk of accidental nuclear war.

March 2007 - President Musharraf suspends the Chief Justice Iftakar Mohammed Chaudhry, triggering a wave of anger across the country. First joint protests held by the parties of exiled former prime ministers Benazir Bhutto and Nawaz Sharif.

March-April 2007 - Officials say around 250 people have been killed in fighting between South Waziristan tribesmen and foreign militants said to be linked to al-Qaeda.

May 2007 - Several killed in Karachi during rival demonstrations over dismissal of Chief Justice Chaudhry. Subsequent strikes paralyse much of the country. A bomb blast in a hotel in Peshawar kills 24.

June 2007 - President Musharraf extends media controls to include the internet and mobile phones amid a growing challenge to his rule.

July 2007 - Security forces storm the Red Mosque complex in Islamabad following a week-long siege.

July 20, 2007 Supreme Court reinstates Chief Justice Chaudhry.

July 2007 - Ms Bhutto, President Musharraf hold a secret meeting in Abu Dhabi on a possible power-sharing deal.

August 2007 - Supreme Court rules Nawaz Sharif can return from exile.

September 2007 - Mr Sharif returns but is sent back to exile within hours.

October 2007 - Musharraf wins most votes in presidential election. The Supreme Court says no winner can be formally announced until it rules if the general was eligible to stand for election while still army chief.

Nearly 200 people die in fighting with Islamic militants in North Waziristan, stronghold of pro-Taleban and al-Qaida groups.

Ex-prime minister Benazir Bhutto returns from exile. Dozens of people die in a suicide bomb targetting her homecoming parade in Karachi.

November 3, 2007 - Gen Musharraf declares emergency rule while still awaiting Supreme Court ruling on whether he was eligible to run for re-election. (ANI)

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