Biopirates hijack traditional knowledge about natureMay 14th, 2008 - 10:40 am ICT by admin
By Simone Humml
Hamburg, May 14 (DPA) Business concerns in the West often make money by patenting their own medicines and agricultural products based on the traditional knowledge of indigenous peoples. A US company has patented a yellow bean grown for thousands of years in South America, while pesticides using substances from the Indian neem tree have been sold by trans-national corporations in Europe and elsewhere.
A company in Germany is marketing a cure for respiratory ailments based on extracts from the African Pelargonium plant genus.
Some of these patents have been returned after years of litigation, but that is not enough for some participants at the UN conference on biodiversity, which takes place in Bonn from May 19-30.
The UN gathering wants to make traditional knowledge less vulnerable to unauthorized use and ensure that adequate financial compensation is made to the communities that possess such knowledge.
“The foundation stone has to be laid so that we can come to a concrete agreement by 2010,” says Konrad Uebelhoer, biodiversity director at the German Society for Technical Cooperation (GTZ).
One of the main demands, he said, is that business and researchers be required to seek permission in the individual countries before they start searching for medicinal plants or genes.
The local communities should also be consulted in the application of traditional knowledge, which is based on practice and has often been passed on through many generations.
“It is necessary to have a clear formula for profit-sharing,” according to Uebelhoer. This could also include transferring the technology used to identify the active ingredients to the countries of origin, he says.
Some 190 nations have signed up to the UN Convention on biological diversity. The only industrialized nation that has not joined is the US, one of the world’s leading pharmaceutical producers.
Washington, Uebelhoer says, does not object to the first two goals of the convention, the protection of biodiversity and its sustainable development.
It is the third aim of justly distributing the profits from the use of biological agents that has run into opposition from the powerful US pharmaceutical industry.
Andreas Drews, who also works for the GTZ, says those applying for patents are not required to state where the biological ingredients come from, leading to an undetermined amount of bio-piracy.
The scientist wants changes made to the way patents are granted in order to stop this practice.
“We demand a formal disclosure of where the resources come from before biological ingredients, novel food and cosmetics can be registered,” he says.
“Novel food” is the term used for new foodstuffs, in particular genetically modified foods.
This is already the case in Norway, says Drews, whose organization is responsible for carrying out projects authorized by the German ministry for economic cooperation and development.
There has already been some success in ensuring that some of the wealth gained from derivatives of traditional knowledge is returned to the holders of that knowledge.
Among the beneficiaries are the San people in southern Africa, according to Frank Barsch, an expert on the protection of species at the environmental organization WWF.
These hunter-gatherers chew the cactus-like hoodia plant to still hunger and thirst pangs on their long journeys through the inhospitable Kalahari desert.
The South African Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) isolated the appetite suppressant P57 contained in the plant and patented it as a dietary supplement. Dutch-based Unilever is now developing the product.
After much protest, CSIR signed a deal with the San in 2003 on sharing the potential benefits of the product, which is being touted as a potential cure for obesity.
Under the deal, to which Unilever is expected to contribute from 2009, San communities will be able to access royalties from a trust fund to finance social projects.
“This does not happen enough because the peoples involved have to be taught how to make an application for compensation,” says Barsch, who spent three years with the San, helping them replant the hoodia because it was in danger of being eradicated.
The WWF wants the Bonn conference to agree to royalties from such products being used for a social and ecological sustainable development.
Tags: active ingredients, agricultural products, business concerns, convention on biological diversity, financial compensation, foundation stone, german society, indian neem tree, indigenous peoples, many generations, medicinal plants, national corporations, only industrialized nation, pelargonium plant, pharmaceutical producers, plant genus, profit sharing, respiratory ailments, technical cooperation, traditional knowledge