Scientists study crystals to improve understanding of volcanic eruption triggers

August 29th, 2008 - 3:35 pm ICT by ANI  

Washington, August 29 (ANI): A team of scientists from the Durham University and the University of Leeds, UK, have studied crystal formation from a volcano, in Santorini, in Greece, to calculate the timescale between the trigger of volcanic activity and the volcanos eruption.

According to the scientists, the technique can be applied to other volcanoes such as Vesuvius, near Naples, in Italy and will help inform the decisions of civil defence agencies.

Worldwide, it is estimated that between 50 and 70 volcanoes erupt each year, but due to the long gaps between eruptions at most volcanoes it is hard to understand how any individual volcano behaves.

This work allows scientists to better understand this behaviour.

During the research, the scientists looked at crystals from the 1925-28 eruption of Nea Kameni, in Santorini.

Lead author Dr Victoria Martin, of Durham University, showed that the crystal rims reacted with molten rock, or magma, as it moved into the volcanos shallow chamber prior to eruption.

This process is thought to be associated with shallow level earthquake activity, as shown by modern volcano monitoring.

By studying the area between the crystal core and the rim, the team then worked out how long the rims had existed revealing how long the magma was in the shallow chamber before it erupted.

The crystals showed the 1925-28 eruption at Nea Kameni took place three to ten weeks after the magma entered the shallow system.

As magma movement typically causes seismic activity, if any future seismic or inflation activity at Nea Kameni can be linked to magma recharge of the volcano, the scientists predict an eruption could follow within a similar timescale.

The team hopes this method can be applied to other volcanoes, allowing the pre-eruption behaviour to be better understood - and understanding of volcanoes to be extended back further in time.

According to co-author Dr Dan Morgan, from the School of Earth and Environment, at the University of Leeds, We hope to develop these techniques further and apply them to more volcanoes worldwide.

Potentially, these techniques could extend our knowledge of volcanic recharge considerably, as they can be applied to material erupted before volcanic monitoring was commonplace, he added.

We hope that what we find in the crystals in terms of timescales can be linked with phenomena such as earthquakes, said Professor Jon Davidson, Chair of Earth Sciences at Durham University.

If we can relate the timescales we measure to such events, we may be able to say when we could expect a volcano to erupt, he added. (ANI)

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