Biologists discover gene that helps in plants double fertilization process

October 23rd, 2008 - 12:41 pm ICT by ANI  

Washington, Oct 23 (ANI): Biologists have discovered a gene that has a critical role in the double fertilization process in plants.

Scientists already knew that flowering plants, unlike animals require not one, but two sperm cells for successful fertilisation.

The mystery of this double fertilization process was how each single pollen grain could produce twin sperm cells.

One to join with the egg cell to produce the embryo, and the other to join with a second cell in the ovary to produce the endosperm, a nutrient-rich tissue, inside the seed.

Double fertilisation is essential for fertility and seed production in flowering plants so increased understanding of the process is important.

Now, Professor David Twell, of the Department of Biology at the University of Leicester and Professor Hong Gil Nam of POSTECH, South Korea, report the discovery of a gene that has a critical role in allowing precursor reproductive cells to divide to form twin sperm cells.

This collaborative project has produced results that unlock a key element in a botanical puzzle, Professor Twell said.

The key discovery is that this gene, known as FBL17, is required to trigger the destruction of another protein that inhibits cell division.

The FBL17 gene therefore acts as a switch within the young pollen grain to trigger precursor cells to divide into twin sperm cells.

Plants with a mutated version of this gene produce pollen grains with a single sperm cell instead of the pair of sperm that are required for successful double fertilization.

Interestingly, the process employed by plants to control sperm cell reproduction was found to make use of an ancient mechanism found in yeast and in animals involving the selective destruction of inhibitor proteins that otherwise block the path to cell division, said Twell.

Removal of these blocks promotes the production of a twin sperm cell cargo in each pollen grain and thus ensures successful reproduction in flowering plants, he added.

According to Twell, This discovery is a significant step forward in uncovering the mysteries of flowering plant reproduction. This new knowledge will be useful in understanding the evolutionary origins of flowering plant reproduction and may be used by plant breeders to control crossing behaviour in crop plants.

In the future, such information may become increasingly important as we strive to breed superior crops that maintain yield in a changing climate, he added. (ANI)

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