Horses were domesticated 1,000 years earlier than thoughtMarch 6th, 2009 - 12:49 pm ICT by ANI
Washington, March 6 (ANI): An international team of archaeologists has uncovered the earliest known evidence of horses being domesticated by humans, dating back to 5,500 years ago, which is 1,000 years earlier than thought.
Led by the Universities of Exeter and Bristol (UK), the discovery could point to the very beginnings of horse domestication and the origins of the horse breeds we know today.
The researchers have traced the origins of horse domestication back to the Botai Culture of Kazakhstan circa 5,500 years ago.
This is about 1,000 years earlier than thought and about 2,000 years earlier than domestic horses are known to have been in Europe.
Their findings strongly suggest that horses were originally domesticated, not just for riding, but also to provide food, including milk.
Through extensive archaeological fieldwork and subsequent analysis, using new techniques, the team developed three independent lines of evidence for early horse domestication.
Their findings show that in the fourth millennium BC horses in Kazakhstan were being selectively bred for domestic use.
They also show horses were being harnessed, possibly for riding, and that people were consuming horse milk.
Analysis of ancient bone remains showed that the horses were similar in shape to Bronze Age domestic horses and different from wild horses from the same region.
This suggests that people were selecting wild horses for their physical attributes, which were then exaggerated through breeding.
The team used a new technique to search for ”bit damage” caused by horses being harnessed or bridled. The results showed that horses had indeed been harnessed, suggesting they could have been ridden.
Using a novel method of lipid residue analysis, the researchers also analysed Botai pottery and found traces of fats from horse milk.
Mares milk is still drunk in Kazakhstan, a country in which horse traditions run deep, and is usually fermented into a slightly alcoholic drink called koumiss.
While it was known that koumiss had been produced for centuries, this study shows the practice dates back to the very earliest horse herders.
According to Lead author Dr Alan Outram of the University of Exeter, The domestication of horses is known to have had immense social and economic significance, advancing communications, transport, food production and warfare.
Our findings indicate that horses were being domesticated about 1,000 years earlier than previously thought. This is significant because it changes our understanding of how these early societies developed, he added. (ANI)
Tags: archaeological fieldwork, archaeologists, bristol uk, culture of kazakhstan, domestic horses, domestication, exeter, fats, horse breeds, independent lines, lipid, mares, milk analysis, millennium bc, novel method, origins, physical attributes, residue analysis, traces, wild horses